Types Of A Language
Every language has different kinds or types within itself. The differences within a language depend on the speakers and the purpose and situation. A professor, for instance, uses academic language when lecturing a class of graduates, using words like ‘demise’ for ‘death’, and the same professor uses an informal or conversational language with very little or no technical words when he is at lunch with the same class of graduates, using ‘died’ for ‘died’, and the same professor uses very informal or even slang language, sometimes putting in words like ‘crap’, ‘damn’, ‘heck’, etc. when he is with his close friends at a poker game, using ‘the bugger kicked the bucket’ for ‘he died’. Therefore, language, depending on its usage, can be called ‘archaic’, ‘poetic’, ‘academic’, ‘formal – high-brow, mediocre and lowbrow’, ‘informal’, ‘slang’, ‘indecent or foul or filthy language in which mostly bad or vulgar words are used’.
The other differences called ‘dialect’, ‘accent’ and ‘creoles’ are sub-kinds within in a language which mostly depend on regional and racial differences. (‘Pidgin’ is a kind of language, also called a ‘contact language’, used by groups of people with different languages, especially in trade communication.) A visiting professor using academic language in his lecture may have a dialect and an accent entirely different from those of the class of graduates attending that lecture. An apt example can be ‘cuppa’ which in the Southern England is used for ‘a cup of coffee’ may be an unfamiliar, though not unknown, word in the Northern part.
And there are other kinds that children in a particular environment use, for example, young school-going children use a set of vocabulary when they are on their own, and a group of street urchins use another set of words all the time. These sets of vocabulary are temporary and they fall into disuse as the children grow up, and the fascinating thing is that the next generation of children use sets of their own; they never reuse the words their peers used! Another complicated kind or type is ‘argot’ or ‘cant’, a kind of unwritten code language, used by thieves, smugglers, pirates, and gangsters, in order to keep their conversations from being understood by others even when they overhear them. The other kinds are language styles used by engineers and technicians, doctors and other medical personnel, newspapers & magazines, and business (marketing) people! It is not that they each use a different language but each of them uses different sets of words (vocabulary/terminology) in the same language.
Newspaper language, in written form, is basically different from the normal language, especially with the ‘headlines’. The headlines need to be short, yet very eye-catching, like, for example, for ‘a police detective was killed in a shootout’ the headlines say (rather scream) ‘SLEUTH SLAIN’. Here again there are differences: newspapers of high standards, newspapers for rural readership, newspapers for business, newspapers for gossip readers – tabloids, etc.
The language differs from one kind of paper to the other, not an entirely different language but different types within the same language. And the language of a newspaper also depends on the news item that has been covered. For example, in an item related to a gang war, the vocabulary has a touch of slang to it, and in an item related to the Pope’s visit to the States has an entirely different set of words. An article discussing the Queen’s birthday is entirely different in its form and style from an article about a young actress who has recently divorced her fourth husband! There may be some articles which are deliberately made slang, humorous (charade) or even filthy to be sarcastic or insulting to a particular person or a group of people.