Origins of Professions in a Society
The system of staying at one place and growing food, i.e., farming, gave raise to other needs: storing the food; protecting the food against natural elements and robbers; distributing it to all the people in the community and so on. Farming also gave raise to other activities which had not been needed or known before. As people stayed at one place permanently, they needed strong and permanent shelters for themselves and for storing their food; they needed new tools for new activities; they needed to guard themselves and their food from other thieving societies. As growing crops was seasonal and needed fertile land, those who were good at predicting weather and showing fertile soils (astrologers) were consulted on such matters as where to sow, when to start sowing and when to do the reaping; those who were good at building shelters (masons) were given the responsibility of building houses and go-downs; those who were good at making clothes (weavers) were given the job of making clothes; those who knew how to make tools and weapons (artisans) were made to do them; those who were strong and had more fighting spirit in them (soldiers, police and guards) took up the responsibility of guarding their food and people in their society; sick people went to consult those who knew how to cure diseases/relieving pain (doctors); and after all, people needed some entertainment, and those who could make people laugh with their words or deeds (jesters) were approached by those who were free and needed some recreation.
Unlike before when a man had grabbed any woman who was of age and, after satisfying his sexual enthusiasm, left her to fend for herself and went for another woman and the strong men chose their mates for sexual pleasures and had them using brute force, a new system of making one man and one woman join together to have sex and give birth to children – ‘marriage’ – came into existence, and to conduct this activity, people needed someone (priests) to perform them; and in addition, these priests were also given the responsibility of ‘thanking’ (‘rituals’ & rites’) the nature and its forces, gods, for giving them good food production and constant protection from natural calamities, called ‘evils’ (floods, draughts, plague), and also from enemies.
As we have even in this space-age, those people also had vices – there were people who were jealous, angry, greedy and rebellious by nature and disturbed the peace and prosperity of the society, and such people were to be punished severely in order to keep law and order. And to do this, people who were well versed with the (unwritten) laws of that society, naturally old wise men (law & order or justice department), were approached to decide on the nature of punishment to be given to those ‘criminals’.
When so many people lived so close together there was some sort of congestion and waste material and filth accumulated, and there had to be someone to do the menial jobs, such as cleaning and washing, and, quite naturally, those with no special or useful skills or who were not ready to take up any other activity, were given the responsibility of keeping the surroundings free of filth (municipality). And to control all these activities, the community chose a person with more strength and knowledge to organise and supervise these activities, and placed him at the head of all these activities, who came to be known as ‘headman’, who later, when the community grew even larger into urban area or ‘city’, became ‘king’!
All these developments in a society gave birth to a new system of division of labour — caste system: administrators, farmers, builders, police (soldiers), warriors (army), weavers, artisans, entertainers and cleaners (municipality).
As there was more stability, there was more production of food, and as there was more security and safety, there was low death rate because of less risk of being killed during hunting. As a result of strong and safe shelters, fewer people died in natural calamities, such as floods, draughts, volcanic eruptions, and in raids by other groups of people and predation by ferocious animals, and as a result of the low death rate, population grew, and as population grew, more and more new activities came into existence and more and more land was needed.