Sentence

Synthesis of Sentences

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Synthesis of Sentences:

The following task is synthesising the sentences which means changing one kind of sentence into another kind.

This kind of practice helps us to understand the sentence structure in full.

1. He must work hard and (he) must make up for the lost time.   Compound Sentence

He must work hard to make up for the lost time.    Simple Sentence

2. He not only robbed the poor child but also (he) murdered her.   Compound Sentence

Besides robbing the poor child, he murdered her.    Simple Sentence

3. Hearing their father’s footsteps, the boys stopped fighting.   Simple Sentence

The boys heard their father’s footsteps and (the boys) stopped fighting.  Compound Sentence

When they heard their father’s footsteps, the boys stopped fighting.   Complex Sentence

4. She confessed her crime.    Simple Sentence

She confessed that she committed the crime.   Complex Sentence

5. He died in that village. He was born there.   Simple Sentence; Simple Sentence

He died in the village where he was born.   Complex Sentence

He died in his native village (home-town).   Simple Sentence

6. They aimed at winning the prize and (they) practised well.   Compound Sentence

Aiming at winning the prize, they practised well.     Simple Sentence

They practised well so that they might win the prize.     Complex Sentence

7. I lost a book.                                  I found that book.      Simple Sentence; Simple Sentence

I found the book which I had lost.    Complex Sentence

8. You must hurry or you will miss the train.    Complex Sentence

If you do not hurry, you will miss the train.     Complex Sentence

You must hurry not to miss the train.      Simple Sentence

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Sentence Synthesis with specific directions:

1. One of the crew leaped into the water as soon as the boat touched shore.

(direction:  rewrite the sentence using ‘no sooner’)

No sooner had the boat touched shore than one of the crew leaped into the water.

[Note the word order:  ‘touched’ is changed into ‘had touched’  and the first part of the verb ‘had’ is placed before the subject word

‘the boat’ to give the expression more force (emphasis).]

2.  We helped them with money as well as with a gang of workers.

(direction:  rewrite the sentence using “not only…but also’)

We helped them with not only money but also a gang of worker.

3.  The difficulty was solved by means of a special service designed for the occasion.

(direction:  rewrite the sentence making the word ‘service’ the subject)

A special service designed for the occasion solved the difficulty.

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Before concluding this topic, the learners must note an important point:

It is not the end of the topic but only the beginning!  Because…

No one single book or course material can include all the rules and important points on any one particular topic.  There are many, many things one needs to learn.  And one learner may understand a particular point more easily than the other.

It is a matter of a particular learner’s ability that determines the time needed to learn a topic!

Some rules are deliberately avoided in this topic just to give the learner some food for thought!

So, come up with your ‘quarries’ and make learning a lively interactive task.

Good  Luck!

Sentence Analysis

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FINAL SENTENCE ANALYSIS:

[according to construction (a) & expression (b)]

You may relax when you have finished this work.

‘You may relax’ = main clause

‘when you have finished this work.’ = subordinate clause — adverb clause of TIME; ‘when’ = conjunction

a) Complex Sentence        b) Statement (Declarative) Sentence

Did he say that he was innocent?

‘Did he say’ = main clause

‘that he was innocent’ = subordinate clause – NOUN clause;

‘that’ = conjunction

a) Complex Sentence         b) Interrogative (question) Sentence

Hearing a loud noise, we all rushed to the door.

‘Hearing a loud noise’ = Present Participle Phrase

‘we all rushed to the door.’ = main part of the sentence

a) Simple Sentence           b) Statement (Declarative) Sentence

He stood up and (he) walked to the door.

‘He stood up’ = Coordinate Clause

‘(he) walked to the door’ = Coordinate Clause

‘and’ = Coordinating Conjunction

a) Compound Sentence      b) Statement (Declarative) Sentence

Unless you work hard, you will not pass the test.

‘Unless you work hard’ = Subordinate Clause – adverb clause of Condition;

‘unless’ = Subordinate Conjunction

‘you will not pass the test’ = main clause

a) Complex Sentence        b) Statement (Declarative) Sentence

Get out!

‘Get out’ = main part of the sentence and the sentence itself

[The subject ‘you’ is not mentioned but understood!]

It is an order with strong force.

a) Simple Sentence          b) Imperative Sentence

The moment which is lost is lost for ever.

‘The moment…is lost for ever.’ = main clause

‘which is lost’ = subordinate clause – Relative/adjective clause

‘which’ = relative pronoun (conjunction)

a) Complex Sentence        b) Statement (Declarative) Sentence

Is this the house that is for sale?

‘Is this the house’ = main clause

‘that is for sale’ = subordinate clause – Relative/adjective Clause

‘that’ = relative pronoun (conjunction)

a) Complex Sentence        b) Interrogative (question) Sentence

A little girl met with an accident while crossing the road.

‘A little girl met with an accident’ = main part of the sentence

‘while crossing the road’ = Phrase – prepositional phrase

‘while’ = in this sentence is not a conjunction but a preposition

because it is introducing a PHRASE, not a Clause

a) Simple Sentence           b) Statement (Declarative) Sentence

Can you go and fetch me a pen, please?

‘can you go’ = Coordinate Clause

‘fetch me a pen (please) = Coordinate Clause

‘and’ = Coordinating Conjunction

‘please’ = an expression showing politeness

a) Compound Sentence     b) Interrogative (question) Sentence

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Sentence Round Up 2

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Round Up of Sentences [according to Expression]:

This is a large house.        Statement Sentence

Is this a large house?        Interrogative Sentence

Buy me a large house.      Imperative Sentence

How large this house is!  Exclamatory Sentence

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Exclamatory Sentence

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exclamatory sentence:

is a sentence which is used to express strong feelings of wonder, sorrow, liking, desire, fear, etc.  An exclamation mark (!) is used at the end of this sentence.

e.g.

How beautiful she looks!

What a lovely day it is!

What an awful dream I had last night!

Note the word order of this sentence.  Although the sentence begins with a ‘wh-’ word, it is not an interrogative sentence because the word order is the ‘subject’ first and the ‘verb’ next, just like in the statement sentence.

Compare:

How beautiful does she look?   Interrogative Sentence

[‘does’ the helping verb of the main verb ‘look’ comes before the main verb “look” – interrogative sentence order; the speaker wants know how she looks]

How beautiful she looks!   Exclamatory Sentence

[‘she’ the subject of the sentence comes before the main verb “looks” – exclamatory sentence order; the speaker says that she looks very, very beautiful]

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Imperative Sentence

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Imperative Sentence:

is a sentence which is used to give orders, advice, instructions, requests and commands.  An exclamation mark (!) is used at the end of this sentence when there is a strong force to the expression, but for the other ‘not so strong expressions’ a full stop (.) is used.

e.g.

Go away.

Shut up and listen to me!

Help me with these bags, please.

In the examples above, the subject part is not mentioned, i.e. no noun or pronoun is used before the predicate part because any ‘order, advice, command, request, etc.’ is given to the listener (the 2nd person pronoun – YOU) and so, no need to mention it directly.

The subject of the imperative sentence ‘you’ is not mentioned but understood.

However, when the listener is not paying any attention to the speaker or doing something else so there is no chance of knowing that he/she is being addressed, the speaker may use the pronoun ‘you’ to get that person’s attention.

e.g.

“You there, don’t spit on the floor!”

This way of addressing somebody is considered rude by some people; therefore, we must be careful not to offend others!

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Interrogative Sentence

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Interrogative (question) Sentence:

is a sentence which asks a question. Only a question mark (?) is used at the end of this sentence.

e.g.

Who are you?

Did you see the film star at the party last night?

Can you do me a favour?

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Statement Sentence

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Kinds of Sentences

[according to Expression]

Statement Sentence:

(also called ‘Declarative Sentence‘ or ‘Assertive Sentence‘)

is a sentence which gives us some information — tells the listener about something.  Only a full stop (.) is used at the end of this sentence.

e.g.

The baby is crying.

I saw him while he was crossing the road.

She will get to work soon.

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Sentences Round Up

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round up of sentences {according to Construction}:

They are our friends. Simple Sentence

My elder brother does not go for work. Simple Sentence

She got very good grades but her sister did not even pass the test.  Compound Sentence

Go and play.   Compound Sentence [‘You go and you play’]

If you want to have a good look at him, you must sit in the front row of the hall. Complex Sentence

He wasn’t there when I called at his place.   Complex Sentence

We got to the stadium on time but (we) did not watch the game because the match was cancelled due to rain.  Compound-Complex Sentence

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Compound-complex Sentence

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compound-complex sentence:

is a group of words which has two or more ‘coordinate clauses’ and one or more “subordinate clauses”, which means it has the qualities of a compound sentence and a complex sentence – 2 in 1!

e.g.

He got up and (he) rushed to the door when he heard some noise.

‘He got up’ = coordinate clause

‘(he) rushed to the door’ = coordinate clause

= COMPOUND SENTENCE

‘he rushed to the door’ = main clause

‘when he heard some noise’ = subordinate clause

=COMPLEX SENTENCE

This sentence has a compound sentence and a complex sentence in it; therefore, it is called a COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE!

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Complex Sentence

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complex sentence:

is a group of words which has ‘one main clause’ and ‘one or more subordinate clauses’.  The main clause is used without any conjunction but the subordinate clause must be used with any of the subordinate  conjunctions, such as because, as, so, when, who, which, if, unless, where, so that, so…that, though, although, as if, as though, etc.

*Remember that the coordinate conjunctions mentioned in the ‘compound sentence’, ‘and/but/or’, do not belong to this group.

e.g.

He went back home early because he was tired.

‘He went back home early’ — main clause

‘because’ — subordinate conjunction (included in the subordinate clause)

‘because he was tired’ — subordinate clause (reason)

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