Direct – Indirect Speech



When we want to repeat (say or report) what another person(s) says, we say it in two ways:

Mr. Penguin and Mrs. Penguin are talking.  Mr. Monkey overhears their conversation, and goes to Miss Penguin, their daughter, to report what he hears…

Your father said to your mother, “I am leaving you.” (the exact words)
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Additions to Remarks

Additions to Remarks


The other important category of Tag-questions is the ‘Additions to Remarks’.

These Remarks are mostly used in conversations.  While agreeing or disagreeing with others in conversation, we do not repeat the entire expression (sentence) the other person says; instead, we use some Additions to give our opinion of the topic of discussion. And learning some standard rules will help us to make our Additions relevant to the matter in discussion and clear to the person(s) we are conversing with.
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Tag-questions or Question Tags


A “Tag-question or Question Tag” is rather like a ‘reply question’ we add to our Statement or Imperative sentence, like a price tag tied to an item for sale. It is made up of an Auxiliary (helping verb) + a Personal Pronoun in Nominative Case.

It is used at the end of the main part of a Statement or Imperative Sentence to ask for confirmation or something we are not certain about, or just to ask for agreement.

A ‘Tag-question’ means something like “Is this true?” or “Do you ( Don’t you) agree?
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Active – Passive Voice

Active & Passive Voice


When the subject of a sentence does something, i.e. if the subject of a sentence is the ‘doer’ of some action, we say that the sentence or the verb of that sentence is in Active Voice.

When the subject of a sentence does not do anything, i.e. if the subject is ‘not the doer’ of any action

but allows the Object of the preposition to do something to it, we say that the sentence or the verb of that sentence is in PASSIVE VOICE.
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Main Verb & Auxiliary Verb

Main (principal) Verb and Auxiliary (helping) Verb


Read these sentences:

James has a new bicycle.

They have a big garden.

I go to school every day.

She teaches English.
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The Personal Pronouns


There are several kinds of PRONOUNS: Demonstrative Pronouns, Interrogative Pronouns, Indefinite Pronouns, Distributive Pronouns, Reciprocal Pronouns, Relative Pronouns and Personal pronouns.

Though all these kinds of Pronouns are used frequently in our sentence building, some of them are not so complicated as the PERSONAL PRONOUNS are, because these   PERSONAL PRONOUNS have different forms and they change their forms depending on the position they are placed in a sentence.
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